30 CFR § 77.410 Mobile equipment; automatic warning devices.
(a) Mobile equipment such as front-end loaders, forklifts, tractors,
graders, and trucks, except pickup trucks with an unobstructed rear view,
shall be equipped with a warning device that--
(1) Gives an audible alarm when the equipment is put in
(2) Uses infrared light, ultrasonic waves, radar, or other
effective devices to detect objects or persons at the rear of the equipment,
and sounds an audible alarm when a person or object is detected. This type
of discriminating warning device shall--
(a)(2)(i) Have a sensing area of a sufficient size that would
allow endangered persons adequate time to get out of the danger zone.
(a)(2)(ii) Give audible and visual alarms inside the
operator's compartment and a audible alarm outside of the operator's
compartment when a person or object is detected in the sensing area; and
(a)(2)(iii) When the equipment is put in reverse, activate
and give a one-time audible and visual alarm inside the operator's
compartment and a one-time audible alarm outside the operator's
(b) Alarms shall be audible above the surrounding noise levels.
(c) Warning devices shall be maintained in functional condition.
(d) An automatic reverse-activated strobe light may be substituted
for an audible alarm when mobile equipment is operated at night.
U.S. Department of Labor | Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) | 1100 Wilson Boulevard, 21st Floor | Arlington, VA 22209-3939 www.msha.gov | Telephone: (202) 693-9400 | Fax-on-demand: (202) 693-9401