MSHA - Code of Federal Regulations - 30 CFR 56.14132
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MSHA - Title 30 CFR
30 CFR § 56.14132

Horns and backup alarms.

(a) Manually-operated horns or other audible warning devices provided on self-propelled mobile equipment as a safety feature shall be maintained in functional condition.

(b)(1) When the operator has an obstructed view to the rear, self-propelled mobile equipment shall have

(b)(1)(i) An automatic reverse-activated signal alarm;

(b)(1)(ii) A wheel-mounted bell alarm which sounds at least once for each three feet of reverse movement;

(b)(1)(iii) A discriminating backup alarm that covers the area of obstructed view; or

(b)(1)(iv) An observer to signal when it is safe to back up.

(b)(2) Alarms shall be audible above the surrounding noise level.

(b)(3) An automatic reverse-activated strobe light may be used at night in lieu of an audible reverse alarm.

(c) This standard does not apply to rail equipment.