MSHA - Code of Federal Regulations - 30 CFR 77.410
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MSHA - Title 30 CFR
30 CFR § 77.410
Mobile equipment; automatic warning devices.

(a) Mobile equipment such as front-end loaders, forklifts, tractors, graders, and trucks, except pickup trucks with an unobstructed rear view, shall be equipped with a warning device that--

(1) Gives an audible alarm when the equipment is put in reverse; or

(2) Uses infrared light, ultrasonic waves, radar, or other effective devices to detect objects or persons at the rear of the equipment, and sounds an audible alarm when a person or object is detected. This type of discriminating warning device shall--

(a)(2)(i) Have a sensing area of a sufficient size that would allow endangered persons adequate time to get out of the danger zone.

(a)(2)(ii) Give audible and visual alarms inside the operator's compartment and a audible alarm outside of the operator's compartment when a person or object is detected in the sensing area; and

(a)(2)(iii) When the equipment is put in reverse, activate and give a one-time audible and visual alarm inside the operator's compartment and a one-time audible alarm outside the operator's compartment.

(b) Alarms shall be audible above the surrounding noise levels.

(c) Warning devices shall be maintained in functional condition.

(d) An automatic reverse-activated strobe light may be substituted for an audible alarm when mobile equipment is operated at night.

[54 FR 30517, July 20, 1989]