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Proximity Detection

Proximity detection / collision warning is a technology that can be installed on mining machinery to detect the presence of personnel or machinery within a certain distance of a machine. These systems can be programmed to send warning signals and stop machine movement when the programmed areas are breached. We use the term "proximity detection" to refer to underground mining applications which often are intended to inhibit machine movement. We use the term "collision warning" to refer to surface machinery applications that typically provide warning signals only. MSHA has assisted the industry in the development of this technology on a variety of machines, both underground and surface.

For questions, please contact David Chirdon at

Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM): MSHA published a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking in August 2011 for the use of proximity detection systems on continuous mining machines in underground coal mines.

  • Public Hearing Transcripts
  • Comments to NPRM
  • Underground Mobile Machine Proximity Detection

    As of May 2014, the mining industry has experienced 38 fatal crushing or pinning accidents since 1984 that involved the operation of remote control continuous mining machines. Although remote control continuous mining machines have the highest incidence rate, similar accidents have been recorded on other types of mining machines.

    The following proximity detection systems have been approved by MSHA to meet the "permissibility" requirements in Title 30 Code of Federal Regulations (30 CFR) Part 18. The MSHA approval indicates only that MSHA has determined that the system is not a spark or thermal ignition hazard in a potentially explosive atmosphere. The approval does not address system performance.

  • Strata Mining Products HazardAvert® System

  • Nautilus, International Coal-Buddy System

  • Matrix Design Group/Joy Mining Model M3-1000 Proximity Monitoring System
  • Matrix Design Group/Joy Mining Intellizone™ Proximity Detection System
  • Proximity Detection / Collision Warning Developers

    The following manufacturers have proximity detection / collision warning products that have been demonstrated at various operations around the world. We include this information to assist the mining industry in evaluating the technology and making informed decisions. Inclusion of this information on the MSHA website should not be construed as endorsement of these products.

    Acumine Collision Avoidance Safety System for Heavy Vehicles (ACASS)
  • AcuMine Web Site
  • ACASS Brochure
  • Acumine Collision Avoidance Safety System for Heavy vehicles (PDF)
  • Acumine Collision Avoidance Safety System for Heavy vehicles (PowerPoint)
  • AustralAsian Mine Safety Journal Article
  • Becker Mining Systems Collision Avoidance System
  • Becker Mining Systems Web Site
  • Becker Collision Avoidance Systems
  • Booyco Electronics Collision Warning System
  • Caterpillar Object Detection System
  • Industrea Collision Avoidance System CAS-CAM/RF®
  • Industrea Web Site
  • CAS-CAM/RF Product Guide
  • Infotronix Collision Avoiance System (CAS)
  • Infotronix Web Site
  • Infotronix CAS New and Certified for Coal Mines
  • Infotronix CAS
  • Modular Mining Systems, Inc. "Roadmap" Proximity Detection
  • PBE Proximity Alert System
  • Preco Electronics "Preview" Radar System
  • SAFEmine Advanced Traffic Awareness Technology
  • SAFEmine Web Site
  • SAFEmine Collision Warning Presentation
  • SAFEmine SafetyCentre
  • SAFEmine movie
  • Strata Surface and Underground HazardAvert™ System
  • Strata Web Site
  • Strata HazardAvert® Brochure
  • Publications

  • MSHA Proximity Detection
  • Proximity Protection Systems - Safety in the Red Zone (by permission from Coal People magazine)
  • MSHA Proximity Detection Update

  • Other Sources of Information

  • Queensland, Australia Proximity Detection Workshop Presentations

  • New South Wales, Australia Proximity Detection Workshop Presentations

  • NIOSH Proximity Detection Topic Page

  • NIOSH Workshop on Proximity Warning Systems for Mining Equipment

  • Some or all of the files available on this page are PDF. For more information on PDF, PDF readers and accessibility issues, please use this link.