CONTROLLING MERCURY HAZARDS IN GOLD MINING:
A BEST PRACTICES TOOLBOX
2. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH). Documentation of Threshold Limit Values. Cincinnati, Ohio. 1996.
3. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. A Recommended Standard for Occupational Exposure to Mercury. DHEW (NIOSH). Publication No. 73-11024. 1973.
4. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Report to Congress on Workers' Home Contamination Study Conducted Under the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. (NIOSH). Publication No. 95-123. September, 1995.
6. 30 CFR §§ 56 / 57.5001
8. The Gold Institute. World Gold Mine Production 1995-1999. Washington, DC. August, 1996.
9. U.S. Geological Survey. Mineral Commodity Surveys 1997. Gold. February 1997, Reston, VA.
10. The Gold Institute, op. cit.
11. U.S. Geological Survey, op. cit.
12. U.S. Geological Survey. Mineral Industry Surveys. Annual Review (Gold) 1995. February 1997, Reston, VA.
13. Throughout this document, the term "gold mines" is meant to include silver mines which also produce gold.
14. U.S. Geological Survey. Annual Review (Gold). op. cit.
15. U.S. Geological Survey. Mineral Industry Surveys. Precious Metals in April 1997. June 2, 1997, Reston, VA.
16. U.S. Geological Survey. Annual Review (Gold). op.cit..
17. U.S. Geological Survey. Precious Metals in April 1997. op. cit.
18. The Gold Institute, op. cit.
19. Mine Safety and Health Administration, Office of Injury and Employment Information. MSHA-IRC: CM665MSX, Cycle 96-115, "Summary employment and injury information by commodity and subunit (excluding contractors) 01/96 thru 12/96, metal/nonmetal" (computer printout), process date 3/3/97, Denver, CO.
20. U.S. Geological Survey. Annual Review (Gold) 1995. op. cit.
21. Christensen, Jon. Gold Diggers of 1996; Nevada Mining Shifts Underground to Get the Deep Ore. New York Times, Nov. 16, 1996; Timmons, Tony, Underground--The next frontier for Nevada miners. Business Dateline, Las Vegas Business Press. March 10, 1997.
22. Staker, W. L., W. W. Simpson and R. G. Sandberg. Mercury Removal From Gold Cyanide Leach Solutions. Minerals and Metallurgical Processing. May 1984: pp. 56-61.
24. Marsden, J, and I. House. The Chemistry of Gold Extraction. Ellis Horwood Limited, Chichester, West Sussex, England, 1992: p.45.
25. "Hydro" refers to the processes that are used to recover the precious metals from the pregnant solution. The term "Pyro" refers to the smelting of the concentrate in a furnace to produce dore bars.
26. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Report to Congress on Workers' Home Contamination Study Conducted by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). op. cit.
27. Centers for Disease Control: Acute and Chronic Poisoning from Residential Exposures to Elemental Mercury. Michigan, 1989-1990. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 40(23):393-395 (June 14, 1991)..
28. McFarland, R.B.; Reigel, H.: Chronic Mercury Poisoning from a Single Brief Exposure. J. Occup. Med. Med. 20:532-534 (1978).
29. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, op. cit.
31. Clayton, George & Florence Clayton, eds. Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. 4th ed. Vol. 2. Part A. John Wiley & Sons, New York: 1994. p. 2128..
32. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, op. cit.
33. Hursch, J.B., Clarkson TW., Goldsmith L.A. Percutaneous Absorption of Mercury by Man. Arch. Environmental Health. March/ April 1989. Vol.44 (No.2), pp. 120-127.
34. Friberg, L.; Vostal, J.: Mercury in the Environment- A Toxicological and Epidemiological Appraisal. CRC Press, Cleveland, OH (1972).
35. ACGIH CD-ROM, TLVs and other Occupational Exposure Values- 1996, Mercury, all forms except alkyl.
36. ACGIH, 1996 TLVs and BEIs: Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents and Biological Exposure Indices, Cincinnati, Ohio, p. 26.
37. NIOSH, A recommended standard for occupational exposure to unorganic mercury. DHEW (NIOSH). Publication No. 73-11024. 1973.
38. Occupational Safety and Health Administration 29 CFR § 1910.1000 Air Contaminants.
39. Clayton, and Clayton, op. cit. p. 2142.
40. The term "dirty" room refers to an area that is solely used to store and wash employees' work clothes. This location has the potential to be contaminated with metallic mercury. This area must be kept clean to reduce employees' exposures to mercury.
41. Marsden and House. op. cit. p. 326.
42. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, Inc. Industrial Ventilation, A Manual of Recommended Practices. 20th ed. ACGIH 1988, pp. 10-53.
43. Beckett, R. and Sanders, M.L. Industrial Hygienists-Puget Sound Navy Yard. Corrections submitted to NIOSH pertaining to the NIOSH criteria for recommended standard...Occupational Exposure to Inorganic Mercury. (Date unknown.)
44. Marsden and House. op. cit. p. 463.
45. Barnebey & Sutcliffe Corp. "Removal of HG Using Impregnated Activated Carbon in Air and Water Treatment." December 12, 1991. This document can be obtained from the above company by calling the following phone number: (614) 258-9501.
46. Harvey, B., G. Crockford & Silk. Eds. Handbook of Occupational Hygiene. Kluwer Publishing. Middlesex, Great Britain. 1988. pp. 8.13-18.
47. This method was developed by Stephen M. Kneipple and Michael L. Lynham, industrial hygienists formerly with MSHA's Denver Safety and Health Technology Center.
48. Much of this section was adapted, with permission, from McDiarmid, Melissa, A. and Edward A. Emmett. Biologic Monitoring and Medical Surveillance of Workers Exposed to Antineoplastic Agents. American Journal of Hospital Pharmacy. Vol. 47 May, 1990.
49. McDiarmid, Melissa, A. and Edward A. Emmett. Biologic Monitoring and Medical Surveillance of Workers Exposed to Antineoplastic Agents. American Journal of Hospital Pharmacy. Vol. 47 May, 1990.
50. Senn, Eileen P. Controlling Metallic Mercury Exposure in the Workplace, A Guide for Employers. New Jersey Department of Health, Occupational Health Service. February, 1996. p. B-4.
51. ACGIH, 1996 TLVs and BEIs, op. cit.
52. Senn, E., op. cit.