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Blasting

Blasting
Conduct pre-blast meeting Complete Blaster's log Site preparation Loading the hole Unusual occurrences Post blast procedures Blast notification Connecting the shot
1. Conduct pre-blast meeting
Review weather conditions
Communicate number of holes
Information from supervisor for communication purposes only
Calculate bags per hole
Calculate 3.94 lbs of anfo per linear foot
Discuss reasons to turn electronic devices off i.e. 2-way radio
Discuss reasons to avoid stepping on detonator cords
Minimize foot traffic in blast area and no motorized vehicles
Review reaons to always face the highwall (Don't turn your back to the ledge)
Discuss stemming process
One shovel of coarse stone and one shovel of fines/chips (layered)
Discuss blast gases
Yellowish-orange
Stay out of cloud
Do not breathe gases
Remind Driller to communicate every hour with supervisor of status
Communicate any needs and status of the Driller
Note: This is very important for those working alone
2. Complete Blaster's log
Log must be completed in it's entirety
Enter date
Enter time
Enter name of quarry
Enter specific location of face (north, south, east, west)
Describe weather conditions
Wind (speed, direction)
Clouds
Enter blaster's name
Enter number of holes
Enter depth of holes
Enter spacing of holes
Enter spacing of burden
Enter amount of 25 ms 700 ms detonators
Enter amount of boosters
Enter amount of detonating cord
Enter amount of 17 ms delays
Sketch drill pattern
Burden, spacing, face
Enter total number of anfo bags
Enter number of pounds of anfo per hole
Enter time of detonation
Note any misfires
3. Site preparation
Deliver stemming materials to blast site (front-end loader operator)
Request made by blaster or supervisor
Locate or place blaster's shed behind or to the side of shot
Blaster shed must be constructed of a minimuym of 3/8" steel; place 300 - 500 eet away from blasting area away from blasting area
Place and/or check for proper signage
Signs are for general public and employees; Signs should be written in both English and Spanish
4. Loading the hole
Loading done by two persons
Best practice (time)
Load holes closest to the face and work your way back
Spot the explosives around the hole
Place anfo on one side of hole
Place booster on opposite side on hole
Place detonator on free side of hole
Slide detonator through booster and fasten in second hole in the booster
Follow proper task training according to manufacturer instructions
Lower detonator and booster into the hole
Pour anfo into hole
Pour anfo into hole
Measure depth of anfo with wooden pole
This should be done by a second person
Stop adding anfo at 10' from top of hole or maximum of 3 bags for a 35' hole
Different hole depths will require different calculations
Place stemming into hole
Place one shovel of coarse and one shovel of fine
Stemming must be level with top of hole
Repeat process for each hole
Never leave blast site unattended
5. Unusual occurrences
Misfire
Notify affected workers
Re-initiate blast notification
Check connections and reconnect the 700 ms detonators
Run new primer cord to blaster's shed
Repeat blast notification procedures
Blast
Repeat post-blast procedures
Lost hole
Cancel the hole (back fill hole)
To prevent misdirection of blast energy
Return explosives to inventory
Note cancelled hole on blaster's log
X-thru explosives used or note "cancel"
Approaching storm
Stop loading
Evacuate
Secure area
Column shift
Treat as a misfire
Wash explosives from hole
6. Post blast procedures
Prohibit entrance to site for 30 minutes
Release access roads
Resume business activities as normal
Return to blast area after 30 minutes
Check area for misfires; avoid gas exposure created by blast
Visually check 700 ms for visible detonation
Look for cap to be blown
Will be opened up with black powder; Last one on each row indicates detonation
7. Blast notification
Notify all equipment operators with radios to barricade roads
Notify scale house to contact fire department
Remove all personnel from blast area (at least 1000' from site)
Call shot firer and instruct him to prime the blast
Radio each check point for final confirmation
Licensed blaster will make a final check and initiate blast
8. Connecting the shot
Clear area except for authorized personnel
Remove van and all equipment
Run detonating cord to blasters shed
Make primer cord and blast hole connections
Refer to blasters chart
Walk the blast site after all connections are made